Re-Invigoration of the Public Sector

I do not mean re-engineering or even re-structuring. Maybe all we need is merely to invigorate the government system in order for it to achieve the maximum efficiency that is expected of it.

We have tried such modes of re-invention as re-engineering and re-structuring, at great cost in time and money, and yet improvements have not been substantial or palpable. The public continues to languish in long queues every time a license or a passport is needed. Bribes are ever pernicious and even more open today, like it is not anymore a secret that should be tucked inside the pocket or a key thrown into the deepest ocean.

The public continues to encounter lazy faces of public servants seemingly tired of their day job and daydreaming of life in beaches almost all day long. At the slightest error, the public who is merely seeking public service get squirmed at by those who are especially employed by the government in order to serve the public, and in order that the common person have the convenience that the government owes them.

What is the aim of the public sector now? This is one vital question that should be addressed before everything can be settled. Is the public servant merely holding position just in order to make a living? He or she should rather be selling vegetables or meat in the market, at least thereat; there would be wider potentiality for the improvement of wealth. Nobody could really get rich in the government service, even serving for a long time.

Is the public servant merely holding position for social status and pride? He or she would rather be joining pageants and spectacles on television, for he or she would be known better there.

The public office is a public trust. This dogma had even been institutionalized in our most fundamental set of laws – our Constitution – and this is most encompassing of all, where no one should be allowed to forget the essence of public service, which is in order to serve the people, and not merely for self-aggrandizement.

In view of the foregoing issues, therefore it is but time to realign our views about the public sector, starting from the people within it. That for every employee of the government, whether national or local, every time he or she sees an individual, riding a Mercedes Benz or wearing no shoes and in tattered clothes, it should not matter, because that person, whether rich or poor, famous or unknown, is the very public sector he or she is aimed to serve.

In this manner, improvement of government service and the government system could be initiated, entering its nascent stages.

Despite the improvements in work environment, like air-conditioned areas, new buildings, expensive vehicles and increase in pay and bonuses, government service remains the same old horse, who is lackluster in movement, lacks dynamism and most of all, deficient towards its main aim of serving the public dutifully and with vigor. The government remains a system that is prone to stagnation and inefficiency, misappropriation, abuse of authority and lack of direction.

We have tried re-engineering the government system in the past and yet even the best re-engineers couldn’t tame the wild river that is the Philippine government system. Maybe we need a rocket scientist for this. We have tried re-structuring but even if our re-structurers could build a pyramid or an Eiffel Tower out of a molehill, the government system remains an ancient nipa hut.

Maybe it’s time that we should try re-invigoration.

It’s not as complicated to do as re-structuring does or as expensive as a re-engineering would demand. It only takes will, political will and cooperation from the people in the system. There are a number of factors that would be put in focus in this aim of putting the government service in the right track, one is leadership, two is awareness, three is competition, four incentives, and five public choice.

In LEADERSHIP, I mean to say political leadership. When we all almost agree that politics and the bureaucracy could not really be separated and is intertwined almost all the time, leadership becomes a most important factor in putting vigor and integrity back into the government service. In choosing our political leaders, especially in the next election activities in the coming years, the people should now aim for leaders who have proven capacity to lead and carry an entire workforce towards the improvement of service. It starts with the people then. If the electorate fails in the first place to change our leadership from the highest level, towards the root level, then re-invigoration of the government system would remain an illusion.

AWARENESS is two-pronged, first there should be awareness or a high level of consciousness among our public servants that their holding of their respective positions is not meant for self-aggrandizement alone, as a form of livelihood above all, but in order to serve the public well, and this should become a passionate and patriotic mission in every individual that would be integrated into the government service. Secondly, there should be similar level of awareness as to the PUBLIC being the CLIENT that the government is aimed to served, (the private sector prefer to call them CUSTOMERS) and the government system is aimed at primarily serving the needs of the CLIENT, that when the client is dissatisfied, public service becomes irrelevant and inefficient in every sensible sense possible. The CLIENT becomes the reason for existence, without it, there is no public service in the first place. This way, every client that enters the halls of a government office should be served well, for the moment that no one would anymore enter the halls of government offices, is just about the time that public service should eradicated.

COMPETITION could be injected into the public sector so that improvement of service could pertain. If the public could be given a choice as to the locus of a better service that they are necessitating, then every public servant would aim to proffer the better form or kind of service. This would entail privatization or semi-privatization of some government agencies or giving the public more stake in the government system, where there is increased community involvement in public service. Competition would entail the heightened accountability and responsibility factor, where the government service would become directly accountable towards the community, that there is really not one that is indispensable, that the public would always have a better place to go when someone in the public sector doesn’t want to serve the people anymore, but only wants to receive salaries and bonuses. This is where PUBLIC CHOICE comes. This element of re-invigoration is the most complicated of all, but it could be done through medium term action plan, like say five years in the process, incrementally achieved by phases. And of course, this would entail a more detailed document and methodology.

Competition also would bring forth to the adjustment of tenures in public service where at present, there is that seemingly extreme bias in favor of security of tenure, so extreme that even if a public servant would go to his or her work in drag and sleep all day, the government system could not take him or her away, resulting to mass demoralization and low-level performances. Public service should straightened out its merit system that only a good performance could lead to promotions and increase in compensation, that not one indispensable that for whenever a public servant does not want to serve the public anymore, as expected of him or her, then other more competent or more able individuals from the workforce should be recruited in his or her stead.

INCENTIVES of course remains a very important element, just like in re-structuring or re-engineering, that for every PUBLIC CHOICE of a government service, the better service would gain performance incentives, such as quota bonuses for a certain level unit of work, like for example if this government cashier had served 100 clients in a day, then performance credits and bonuses would inure or if this inspector had visited more areas or locations in a month than all the rest, he or she receives a hefty amount. It could be done in a larger scale that for example if this government agency branch had performed well in a particular year, more than the others in the same field, the whole workforce of that branch would get bonuses and be lauded with public acclaim. They do that in private sector, that’s why the private sector had been able to build the grand Makati skyline over the years, and is establishing another in Fort Bonifacio and in Ortigas, aside from the busting urban scene in Cebu and Davao, and they do not receive any subsidy from taxpayers, unlike the government service system.

The private sector had not been fraught with issues of grand corruption because employees in the private sector do not attain such level of indispensability like that in the public service, where those who performed well are credited well and remain in the service for long, while those who are lackluster and lack integrity in work is taken out of the system. And besides, if one reaches a managerial or administrative level in the private sector, one is assured of hefty compensation that is why, in recent years, managers and executives of private companies have been able to increased sales in dramatic proportions. There are a lot of things that the government service could learn from the private sector in terms of methodologies, form of work structure, incentive system, recruitment and promotion system, tenures of employees, work ethics and level of competency and most of all in their treatment of the CLIENT, which they often call as the CUSTOMER.

In public service, the CLIENT may not always be right, but for certain they are the reason for being. A population that is served better by the government, in terms of public service– like education, licenses, security of food, public order and safety, health and welfare, livelihood opportunities, housing, job placements, communication and technology, etc.– is a population that can make a better government and thereon, a more vibrant State.

Higher Technical Education: Distinctiveness of Humanities, Indian English, and ESP

I am grateful to the organizing committee for thinking about me and inviting me to deliver a guest lecture on distinctiveness of Humanities and social sciences in higher technical education. I feel rather uneasy and highly septic, as I stand here with no pretensions of a high-brow professor or specialist whose discourse goes overhead. I speak to you as a practicing teacher of English language skills, especially for science and technology, and Indian English writing, especially poetry, with interest in what concerns us in the Humanities division, which, unfortunately, enjoys little academic respect in the over-all scheme of things in almost every technical institution.

Maybe, a conference like this augurs well for friends in the department of Humanities & Social Sciences, as they seek to explore interdisciplinarity, which indeed expands the scope of teaching and research. But I must provide a perspective to my several remarks that ensue from my reflections on the quality of intellectual activity in most technical institutions vis-a-vis the negligible support for scholarship in the Humanities, perhaps with the belief that the humanities are not ‘real subjects’ or that these have no bearing on learning of technical subjects, or these bring no demonstrable economic benefit.

The discipline has declined more perceptibly with, to quote Nannerl O. Keohane, “the creation of increasingly specialized disciplines and rewards for faculty members for advancing knowledge in those areas.” We have a marginalized status in technical institutions even if we may have been playing a crucial role as teachers of languages and letters. I don’t want to dwell on them here. But, we should be aware of the ground reality.

Yes, study in humanities is not always a matter of communicating ‘new findings’ or proposing a ‘new theory’. It is rather ‘cultivating understanding’ or thinking critically about some profound questions of human life; it is often the expression of the deepened understanding, which some individual has acquired, through reading, discussion and reflection, on a topic which has been ‘known’ for a long time. To me, practices in arts and humanities elevate consciousness, refine susceptibilities in various directions, create deeper awareness, and enable us to respond critically and independently to the ‘brave new world’ we live in. Arts and humanities alone can help us to explore what it means to be human, and sustain “the heart and soul of our civilization.” Perhaps, it’s the usefulness of humanities which is acknowledged by inviting me to speak to a distinguished audience like this.

I intend to divide my brief into two parts: I would reflect on technical institutions as schools of higher learning; and then, I would say something about the business of English language teaching, which is my prime professional concern. Yet, much will remain unsaid, for I am aware of the controversies I may be raising.

I strongly feel most university level technical institutions in India, like the general ones, have failed in promoting or upholding healthy intellectual attitudes and values, and academic culture and tradition, expected of a university, just as, it’s painful for me to observe, the culture has been virtually dismal in the case of studies in arts and humanities in the last four decades. The dullness and sameness has marginalized both creative and critical performance, or the standards handed down to us have become obsolete, or we have fallen into an abyss of unbecoming elitism, or we have become used to a cornucopia of pleasures formerly denied us: I won’t comment. But an opportunity, such as this, is necessarily not to offer any authoritative judgments but to reflect on, or to provide insights into, issues that concern intellectuals at the top of university teaching hierarchy. Should I say ‘non-university’? for I fear most of the faculty do not want to move beyond the parochial confines of narrow exclusivity. It’s the age of specialization they say, and discourage diversity, tolerance and inclusivity: they do not strive for intellectual mobility and change of attitude; we, as seniors, too, have not tried to reach out, or explore!

As a university, we are not oriented to the transformation of our social order, nor are we obligated to act as a moral deterrent in inhibiting the growth of selfish motivation. We think of education in terms of laboratory or industrial practices in mineral and mining sectors, energy, electronics, engineering, computer application, environment, management, law, health sciences, life sciences, and all that, but hardly care for ‘producing’ fully competent and spiritually mature human beings. We do not pay attention to the growth of individual creativity and to an intuitive understanding of individual purpose. We do not bother to educate with, to quote Rabindranath Tagore, the “knowledge of spiritual meaning of existence” which is also the ethical and moral meaning. We have been, unfortunately, bogged down in schemes that inculcate a habit of the mind which indulges in seeking only better opportunities to survive, or higher pay packages.

I’m afraid for too long we have practiced the “how to” of life and neglected the “why”. I believe it is comparatively easy to learn how to accomplish certain material tasks, but much more difficult to learn “what for”. If our educational system has failed over the years, it is because we have never come into a working knowledge of our humanity. We have gained incredible amount of technical knowledge, perhaps more than enough to resolve many problems with which mankind is presently faced, but we have never tried to reflect on how to apply it constructively and successfully for the good of all, with a sense of human dignity.

Some of us rightly worry about the general lack of mutual respect for the rights and feelings of others, the tendency to be suspicious of the unknown, the tendency to take liberty with the sanctity of the individual person, and complain about the general lack of character and integrity, despite higher education. I see our failure in communicating with the spiritual insight which is marked by a balance between individual desires and social demands; I see our failure in creating the awareness of the world of values and principle of the spiritual oneness underlying the great variety found in the world. I see our failure in the humanity being torn apart by intolerance and fundamentalism, the suicidal urge for self-destruction. I see our failure in the rising ethnic, linguistic and religious tensions that now belie the scientific, technological and enlightened euphoria of the sixties.

We seem to have lost a sense of obligation toward creating a good, tolerant, forward-looking society. Thanks to the role of money in democratic processes and institutionalization of corruption at all levels, people have lost faith in politicians, bureaucrats and government. The invasion of governance by the criminal-politician-bureaucrat nexus has done the country greatest harm than the shift of power following the wave of globalization, multinational capitalism, corporate economy, politics of war on terror, environmental concerns, human rights and all that. There is a reshaping of self, values and norms with dominance of the Western discourse in critical reasoning and reflection through perils and delights of growth and change; through survival skills vis-à-vis emigration, sex, parenthood, and age; through re-visiting past and present with vested awareness; through political orthodoxy in the name of democracy, religious fanaticism, casteist dominance, and repression of the liberals and the simple; and through the new processes of fossilization of the pre-colonial/colonial/post-colonial that renders many of us in the profession irrelevant. I wonder if we are not terribly dislocated in our small world.

Let me not digress any further. Ladies and Gentlemen, every university is a school of higher education, but how high is high? If we are only interested in technical education for the sake of developing professional ability or skill in some area of life, then we are talking about a vocational school or polytechnic, and not a true university. Unfortunately, most universities (and technical institutions) have been vying with each other to become professional schools, not committed to the teaching of better morality, higher philosophy, universal order or universal culture. They are not producing morally and ethically conscious good citizens. I am afraid all one can expect from the present priorities in the so called higher education is survival, pursuit of money, and power.

When science is transformed into technology, it becomes a form of power. And, as history would testify, power is the power for good and for evil. The technological culture we live in pervades and shapes our lives. The computer and internet culture, electronic gadgets, microwave, fridge, mobile phones, antibiotics, contraceptives and several such devices have been more than new means. Our sense of vulnerability has been changing fast. The new consumerist culture has taken away what was earlier meaningful and rich experiences of life.

We in the Humanities & Social sciences department need to debate the multifaceted reality that modern technology offers-not only its devices and infrastructure which are its material manifestation but also skills and organization, attitudes and culture, perhaps constructively and contextually. Thinking through technology should make possible for us to develop and contribute to humanities philosophy of science and engineering just as different visions may be possible to discuss through social philosophy of technology. Researchers in the West have already been talking about technology as liberator, technology as threat, and technology as instrument of power. Our lives and ideas have thus changed and will continue to change. In fact, every field has been changing rapidly these days. The discipline (HSS) needs to incorporate their study, especially as media such as internet and social networking have already modified and redefined human relationship and identities everywhere and at all levels.

Then, there is the emergence of what has been called ‘knowledge society’. The growth or creation of knowledge society that we have been talking about since the beginning of this century presupposes our capacity for idea generation. But if knowledge is not made freely available to all who seek it, how can one promote humanity or make it power for a liberal democratic society. Moreover, as scientific and technical knowledge spreads or becomes more powerful, it would become more problematic for the scientific community to assume moral responsibility for the use and abuse of scientific knowledge. To mitigate this challenge, one needs an education not so much in science but in humanities. When scientists say they want to live up to their social responsibilities, what they seem to mean is that they want more power than they have; it means they want to run things, to take charge. They should not end up ‘doing politics’ in the name of improving the world or society. Let them be interested in themselves, in facing the task of their own self-improvement, and learning how to think about their own responsibilities in a more serious and reflective way, their own moral education.

As a faculty in the Department of Humanities and Social Sciences in one of the leading technical universities in the country, what I think the scientific and engineering community has to face up to is its own self-education, its own social education. Our budding engineers and scientists have to explore answers to such basic questions as: what is a good society? How do we go about achieving it? How do we-what do we-learn from history? What do we learn from political philosophers of the past? Or, why scientists think and speak the way they do? They cannot neglect this kind of educational enquiry in technical education because there is more and more to know as the fields proliferate. Which means, the department of Humanities and Social Sciences should equip them with the basics that helps them demonstrate understanding in and across the major disciplines: scientific understanding, technical understanding, mathematical understanding, historical understanding, artistic/humanistic understanding, cross-cultural understanding, and understanding of moral and political philosophy, and philosophy of science etc. There is need for providing new unfamiliar concepts and examples to promote such understanding which will later enable them to take enormous decisions vis-à-vis the complexity of the world science and technology has brought about.

With the present consciousness, accept it or not, we, in educational establishments, have perpetuated living with a world in upheaval, and in some cases, have even shown a preference for it. But, with a higher order of awareness that approaches intuitive levels of understanding (something arts, culture and humanistic studies essentially seek to develop), we should be better able to look at an issue from many different dimensions, and rationalize how we ought to live in the future “as complete citizens who can think for themselves, criticize traditions, and understand the significance of another person’s sufferings and achievements,” to quote Martha Nusbaum from her book Not for Profit.

A technical university needs to provide for education which also elevates the consciousness and extends the power of the soul; that is, we need to shift a part of the current educational priorities from the intellect to the heart, and from scientific and technical thinking to soul cognition. The end and aim of a university, be it technical or general, is the perfection of man, striving to evolve the consciousness in tune with the universe.

The education we ‘sell’ needs to be re-tuned towards creativity, innovation, and respect for fundamental freedom; our policies and curiculums should help in strengthening the culture and values of a global society which is characterized by multiculturalism, intercultural interactions, mutual respect, tolerance, dignity and respect for values, and consciousness of ourselves as one human race, human rights and global responsibility for change in attitudes. We must, at every level, strive for a balance between the traditional attitudes and the need for a modern multi-cultural society.

I believe most of the new technical institutions can maintain their distinctiveness by seriously opening to the diversity of our times, by sharing freely with students representing the diversity of our larger society, culture, and future needs. The enclave approach which seeks to shut out or at least seriously limit the diverse socio-cultural needs and understanding may not help any more to maintain distinctiveness of the institution.

I also worry about the system’s unwillingness to nurture the ethos and sensibility that sustains a university spirit even as, according to the current govt. policies, an institution of higher learning is expected to run as a business enterprise which in days to come, will modify, perhaps irreversibly, our attitudes to teaching and research, our notions of knowledge, our administrative practices, and our relationship with the state and society. We need to make a move from the concerns of the immediate present to the future and visualize a different typology of cultural, linguistic and educational problems against the backdrop of a very fluctuating socio-political climate and pressures of all types.

As part of the language and literature teaching fraternity for over 38 years and working in a specialized university, I know how significant Humanities teaching is to hone the mind, critical thinking and communication skills. I am tempted to quote Erwin Griswold (of the Harvard Law School): “You go to a great school not so much for knowledge as for arts or habits; for the art of expression, for the art of entering quickly into another person’s thoughts, for the art of assuming at a moment’s notice a new intellectual position, for the habit of submitting to censure and refutation, for the art of indicating assent or dissent in graduated terms, for the habit of regarding minute points of accuracy, for the art of working out what is possible in a given time; for taste, for discrimination, for mental courage, and mental soberness.”

Now, let me talk about the business of English Language Teaching. I say ‘business’ because it has developed into a multi-million dollars commercial enterprise outside the native bases. We too, have an opportunity to capitalize on it in our own way, if we can. We can reach out to people in over 70 countries where English is one of the main languages.

The global diffusion of the language has now taken an interesting turn: the ratio between the native speakers of English (in countries like the U.K., the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand) and the non-native speakers (in countries like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Ghana, Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Tanzania, Sri Lanka, Zambia, Philippines etc where English is used along with the mother tongue) is almost 40: 60, and it has expanded fast to other countries (like China, Japan, Egypt, Indonesia, Korea, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Zimbabwe, Taiwan, the Gulf Countries, and the countries of the erstwhile Eastern Bloc). It is virtually a native language in South Africa, Jamaica and West Indies. Its acculturation, its international functional range, and the diverse forms of literary creativity it is accommodating are historically unprecedented.

As Braj B. Kachru notes, the situation today is such that the native speakers have an insignificant role in the global spread and teaching of English; they seem to have lost the exclusive prerogative to control its norms of use or standardization; in fact, if current statistics are any indication, they have become a minority.

This sociolinguistic fact and its implications have not yet been fully recognized by most linguists, ELT practitioners, ESPists, administrators, language policy planners, and college and university teachers in India. What we need now are new paradigms and perspectives for linguistic and pedagogical research and for understanding the linguistic creativity, including the scientific and technical writing, in multilingual situations across cultures.

You will appreciate the English we all speak is not like the English the native speakers of the language speak. We don’t need to. The yardsticks of the British or American native speakers, or their standards as reflected in GRE, TOEFL or IELTS etc, or their kind of tongue twisting, are simply damaging to the interests of non-native speakers. We have to develop our own standards, instead of teaching to sound like Londoners or North Americans. Pronunciation must be comprehensible and not detract from the understanding of a message. But for this nobody needs to speak the so called standardized English that makes inter- and intranational communication difficult. David Crystal too appreciates this reality and favours local taste of English in India and elsewhere.

Our Indianness is clearly reflected in the pronunciation of certain vowels and consonant, in the stressing of words, in the rhythm and pauses, in the vocabulary and lexical acculturation, discourse patterning, code mixing, usages, grammatical deviations etc. The prolonged linguistic and cultural contact of English in various states of the Indian union has given it a unique character which deserves serious academic exploration. It has acquired a considerable functional range and depth, and it is preposterous to expect that the language would not be ‘shaped’ or ‘moulded’ according to the local needs or remain unaffected by the influences of local languages and literatures, cultures and users. It is, in fact, the result of such deep-rooted local functions, that we have now an institutionalized model of English for intranational uses. The way India’s multilingualism and ethnic pluralism have added to the complexity of Indian English, apart from ‘mixing’ words, phrases, clauses and idioms from the Indian Language into English, and in ‘switching’ from one language to another, perhaps to express the speaker’s ‘identity’ or linguistic ‘belonging’, the role of ‘native speaker’– the British or American– as become peripheral, as Kachru rightly asserts, unless he or she understands the local cultures and cultural presuppositions.

I am not very much concerned with the literary perspective of Indian English here, even if I have been actively associated with Indian English literary practices for over thirty five years. I am professionally interested in the language use and usage of Indian writers, and scholars and researchers of science and technology, the localized educated variety they have developed to communicate indigenous innovations. You can appreciate this if you have noticed development of local registers for agriculture, for the legal system, for entertainment industry, for Environment, and so on. The publications of Indian practitioners of science and technology have certain discourse features which are unique to Indian English, but not examined.

I suspect Indian English is not yet recognized as an important area of research for ‘English for specific purposes’ (ESP) that we teach. [It is also, however, very sad that though ESP as an approach is now firmly established, it still has fewer supporters in India, possibly because nobody wants any changes in the conventional teaching-learning practices?] Having been in the forefront of ESP movement in the country for over twenty five years, I am aware of the localized linguistic innovations in the huge output of Indian researchers, some of which has the potential for serving effectively and successfully as pedagogical texts or teaching materials. But it is unfortunate the English teaching academia are slow to recognize the pragmatic contexts–the importance of intranational uses of English and according to local needs – and continue to stick to the external norms of English. It’s more regrettable that the conceptual and applied research on ESP in the West has avoided addressing issues which are vital for understanding the use of English across cultures.

The way ESP has turned international, teachers and researchers in Applied Languages in our country need to explore: what accommodation a native speaker of English may have to make for participation in communication with those who use a local (or non-native) variety of English; what determines communicative performances or pragmatic success of English in its international uses; what insights we have gained by research on intelligibility and comprehensibility concerning international and intranational uses of English; and what attitudinal and linguistic adjustments are desirable for effective teaching of ESP based on a non-native English, like Indian English. These are a few basic questions, not convenient to Western ESP enthusiasts.

I have noticed in the Western ESP in general, and science and technology in particular, a strong bias towards ethno-centricism in approach and neglect of intranational motivation for the uses of English. It is not possible to practice ESP effectively unless we respect, what John Swales call, “local knowledge” and “localized pragmatic needs”. After all, we use the language as a tool and we cannot ignore the localized innovations that have “code-related” and “context-related” dimensions. We ought to view non-native innovations in ESP as positive and consider them as part of the pragmatic needs of the users. It is the attitudinal change that I plead for!

Teaching of ESP in a university in the second language situation like ours is largely a “collaborative sense-making” with the class. When I say this, I am pointing to the interactive nature of formal instruction, which, in terms of actual language use, is essentially Indian in tone, tenor and style. I am also referring to the need for understanding the dichotomy between the rhetoric of EST teaching and the practice enacted in the classroom from the viewpoint of adult learners, and language skills development and competence in the Indian social setting. We need to evolve a dynamic model of ‘communicative teaching’ of ESP which seeks to develop (i)linguistic competence (Accuracy), (ii)pragmatic competence (Fluency), and (iii) sociolinguistic competence (Appropriacy), without ignoring interrelated aspects of local practice, research and theory and at the same time emphasizes language awareness, which is a significant concept in ELT, in that it covers implicit, explicit, and interactive knowledge about language and provides for a critical awareness of language and literature practices that are shaped by, and shape, sociocultural relationships, professional relationship, and relationship of power. The approach can also facilitate cross-cultural comparisons and contrasts, and promote genre-based studies (i.e. how language works to mean, how different strategies can be used, how meaning is constructed), basic to ESP, in that it truly develops individual’s performance competence.

Friends, I have hopped from one point to another, perhaps jumbled up, in my zeal to draw your attention to several aspects of English, Indian English and ESP that have wider and deeper implications. They touch attitudinal chords of English language users, teachers and administrators too. Teaching of English, both language and literature, today is not only academically challenging but also opens new refreshing avenues for applied research. This is because of the spread and changing status of English, which has grown from a native, second, and foreign language to become an international language of commerce science and technology, spoken among more non-natives than natives in the process of their professional pursuits or everyday lives. I have also placed certain facts of science and technology education in the context of Humanities before you, raised issues, expressed my view, and now it is for the profession to accept, reject or explore their implications. Thank you.

Professor R.K.Singh
Head, Dept of Humanities & Social Sciences
Indian School of Mines
Dhanbad 826004 India

[This is the Text of my specially invited Lecture at SRM University’s International Conference on ‘Role and Responsibilities of Humanities and Social Sciences in Technical Education’ on 17 March 2011]

College Grads Turn to Public Service

As jobs became scarce during the recession, many college graduates turned to public service work, many taking nonprofit and US military jobs. From 2008 to 2009 alone, 16 percent more college graduates worked for the federal government and 11 percent more worked for nonprofit groups, according to an analysis by The New York Times of data from the American Community Survey of the United States Census Bureau. A Labor Department survey showed that the amount of college grads going into these jobs continued to rise in 2010.

Since the start of the recession in 2007, an increasing and steady number of college graduates (tens of thousands) also joined the armed forces, with the Navy and the Army seeing the biggest increases. About 60 percent more graduates joined the Navy in 2011 than in 2007.

“When the economy worsens, as it has in recent years, we certainly see a surge in the number of young people who are highly qualified, who want to join the military,” said Beth Asch, a researcher for the RAND Corp – an organization which has studied U.S. military recruitment for over 40 years.

“Since the mid-2000s, the unemployment rate has essentially doubled,” she said. Since then, the Army and Navy saw more than a 50 percent increase in recruits with college degrees, the RAND Corp reported in 2012.

According to statistics in 2011 from numerous public-service organizations, the number of college graduates nationwide seeking nonprofit work with organizations like AmeriCorps, the Peace Corps and Teach for America also sharply increased.

“It’s not uncommon for me to hear of over 100 applications for a nonprofit position, sometimes many more than that, and many more Ivy League college graduates applying than before,” Diana Aviv, chief executive of Independent Sector, a trade group for nonprofits, told The New York Times in 2011. “Some of these people haven’t been employed for a while and are happy to have something. But once they’re there, they’ve recalibrated and reoriented themselves toward public service.”

Applications for Americorps positions nearly tripled from 91,399 in 2008 to 258,829 in 2010, and 582,000 applications were submitted in 2011. The number of applicants for Teach for America also climbed 32 percent in 2011. In 2012, Teach for America received the highest amount of applicants to date – more than 48,000.

Limited work in the private sector and a weak economy weren’t considered sole contributors to the new trend, however. Student loan forgiveness programs, presidential support and a more prevalent desire to serve noted among the millennial generation were also believed to be significantly contributing factors.

Some cited President Barack Obama’s popularity with youth, background as a community organizer, and his promise to make public service “cool” which helped spark young people’s interest in public service careers.

In a 2007 interview with Time magazine, Obama, then a U.S. senator, said that he could “make government and public service cool again” if elected president:

“One of the things I think I can bring to the presidency is to make government and public service cool again. There’s such a hunger among young people for some outlet for their idealism. That’s why you see these movements around Darfur or climate change. You don’t see it expressed in terms of people wanting to serve in the Justice Department or the foreign service. Why should they, when the core missions of those agencies have been gutted? “)

Another perk and influence for recent graduates to enter public service was the federal public service loan forgiveness program, created in 2007. The program grants forgiveness of student loans for those who work in public service for 10 years.

“I think there’s this great need in so many different areas that my generation is just responding to,” Courtney Washburn, a 2010 graduate who decided to make a living in public service, said to Knox News.

“One thing my generation is starting to see is that money isn’t an end all,” says 22 year old graduate Warren Pineda. “We value intrinsic rewards other than money. It’s just trying to be the change that you want to see, because if you don’t do it, nobody else will.”

Some political scientists have said that millennials – those who grew up in the 1990s or the 21st century – are “unusually big-hearted,” attributing this in part to extra community service requirements they had in school.

“This generation grew up with big events like 9/11 and Hurricane Katrina,” said Sandy Scott, senior communications adviser for the Corporation for National and Community Service in Washington, D.C. – the federal agency that oversees AmeriCorps. “They were exposed in K-12 education at an early age to the rewarding value of volunteering, a new but growing phenomenon. They want to make a hands-on difference, so it’s no surprise they’re flocking to AmeriCorps and other public-service opportunities.”

Although the numbers of educated young people working in public service jobs had been rising slightly since the turn of the millennium, the sudden uptick in 2009 suggests that it may have been the absence of private sector work, and not big-heartedness, that forced more recent grads to seek work in the public sector. From 2008 to 2012, private jobs were down 4 percent; the federal government, meanwhile, expanded by 11.4 percent.

Although nonprofits were happy to have energetic, educated, inexpensive new-hires, some worry that their popularity among today’s youth may not outlast this period of increased unemployment. Several studies have found however, including Paul Oyer’s 2008 findings on M.B.A.’s who graduate in recessions, that economic conditions at the start of a worker’s career can have a strong impact on one’s long-term career trajectory.

That ending may, in fact, not be too far ahead of us now. This month, the Employment and Training Administration of the US Department of Labor reported that first-time unemployment insurance claims were down 330,000 – a low level not seen since January 2008. Bloomberg News cautions, however, that the data does not account for swings that take place at the beginning of a year.

The last three months, moreover, have reportedly marketed the largest four-year decline for public employment since World War II – one public employee was fired for every five private sector workers who found a job. Since the end of 2008, nearly 700,000 public sector employees have lost their jobs, mainly due to budget cuts.

Those who lost their job were more likely to not have a post-secondary education, data presented in “The College Advantage: Weathering the Economic Storm” indicates. Almost four out of every five jobs lost from December 2007 to January 2010 belonged to workers without a college degree, and jobs gained during the recovery have not been returned to those workers, but taken by workers with a bachelor’s or higher degree, or postsecondary training.

Human Survival Timeline to the 21st Century Renaissance

The following article stresses the importance of the fact that the Times Literary Supplement included Sir C P Snow’s book, ‘Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution’, in its list of the 100 books that most influenced Western public discourse since the Second World War (‘The Times’ London. 30 December 2008).

Funding is now urgently needed for research into the Platonic Medical Science for Ethical Ends which has been derived from advancing Snow’s human survival theories. The following summary of research already undertaken by the Science-Art Research Centre of Australia, sets out a framework for further research and actions which could facilitate the funding required through the sale of relevant artwork.

The Pioneering of Platonic Fullerene Chemistry

Professor Robert Pope, born in Bendigo on December 1939, is listed as a Science-Art artist-philosopher in Who’s Who of the World. He is also an Enzinearticle Global Celebrity Author and the father of Platonic Fullerene Chemistry. In 2009 he received a Gold Medal Laureate, awarded by the Telesio-Galilei Academy of Science, London. He worked with the late former Head of the Development Sector of the AEG-Telefunken Institute of Automatic Control in Frankfurt, Hamburg and Berlin, Professor Wolfgang Weber, to establish the basis of Buckminster Fuller’s World Game Theory, in order to implement C P Snow’s human survival theories through supercomputers. As Director of the Science-Art Research Centre of Australia Incorporated, Robert Pope authored a new book, ‘The 21st Century Renaissance’, published in 2012, in liaison with Florence University’s New Measurement of Humanity Project.

Pope launched the Pope Art Gallery in Alice Springs in Central Australia in 1994 and two years later won the inaugural Northern Territory Caltex Art Award, later to become the Alice Art Prize. He began to apply knowledge from his previous professional work, in seismic computer mapping, to remove what he referred to as ‘noise interfering with the human creative process,’ honouring the survival theories of Sir C P Snow. During the 1970s he organised at his own expense and in collaboration with the Western Australian Department of Native Welfare, a special art school for disadvantaged aboriginal children. From these experiences, Pope believed that Western Science, by ignoring human creativity physics principles, had been built on false scientific assumptions, which C P Snow had warned would destroy civilisation. In 2008, ‘The Times Literary Supplement’ included Snow’s ‘Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution’ in its list of 100 books that most influenced Western Public discourse since the Second World War.

21st Century Renaissance: Timeline to Infinity

The culmination of years of dedicated and meticulous research was marked with the publication in 2012 of the book, ‘The 21st Century Renaissance’, by the Science-Art Research Centre of Australia, directed by Robert Pope. The following timeline traces Robert Pope’s long journey which led to this publication.

The reunification of Science and Art Project

1972: The Art Academy of Western Australia Environment Division Newsletter (Australian National Library Archives) announced that the artist Robert Pope and the eminent geologist Dr John Daniels (The new mineral ‘Danielsite’ was named in his honour) were working together to reunite science with art. Robert Pope had become convinced that the theories of Sir C P Snow had been given rigorous scientific structure by the American engineer Buckminster Fuller. This was later confirmed six years later within Fuller’s biography, written by Harvard University’s Novartis Professor, Amy Edmondson, who stated that Fuller had derived his synergistic universe from Platonic mathematics. The mathematics was the basis of C P Snow’s ancient Greek artistic culture.

1973: The artist Robert Pope was awarded a Western Australian Bursary to further his research into Sir C P Snow’s concepts about bridging the culture gap between science and art. Pope argued that Fuller’s book ‘Utopia or Oblivion’ fully supported Snow’s theories.

1974: The Australian National Bulletin featured Pope’s Science-Art theories. A letter to the editor of the Bulletin, written by Professor John Frodsham, Head of the School of Human Communications at Murdoch University, Western Australia, claimed that Robert Pope was the first artist living to have crossed the C P Snowline. The artist later delivered a lecture on ‘Crossing the Snowline’, at the University of Western Australia, to eminent visiting black hole physicists.

1978: Robert Pope received a Science-Art Residency at the Waite Research Institute of the University of Adelaide. The Australian Department of Foreign Affairs arranged an official visit between the artist and Princeton University’s Black Hole physicist, Remo Ruffini, during his Australian lecture tour. The Science Division of Australian National Television recorded the artist’s theories on film. Ruffini organised for UNESCO to invite Robert Pope to attend the 1979 Second Marcell Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, as a Special Australian Science-Art delegate.

Towards the 21st Century Renaissance: The Development of C P Snow’s Theories

1979: ABC Television screened Robert Pope’s Science-Art documentary into their international eight part series entitled The Scientists-Profiles of Discovery. His documentary was subtitled ‘Pope the Catalyst’. The Commonwealth Department of Trade and Export Development awarded a grant to publish Robert Pope’s Science-Art book for distribution to delegates attending the World Summit Meeting in Trieste, held to celebrate the 100th Anniversary of the birth date of Albert Einstein. The ultimate objective of the book was to bring to Australia C P Snow’s envisaged super-technology in the form of a human-survival medical science. The Head of the Chinese Solid State Physics Delegation attending the meeting, China’s most highly awarded physicist, Kun Huang, provided Pope with a research methodology to modify Einstein’s world-view in order to accommodate the human survival theories of Sir C P Snow. The proposed research suggested the compilation of formulae based upon Snow’s emphasis on linking the mathematical logic upholding Classical art theory with modern science. The relevant geometrical simulations were to be used to generate life-form simulations through space-time, using the world’s seashell fossil record to provide rigorous evolutionary proof statements supporting Snow’s work.

Robert Pope’s Science-Art theories were mentioned in the prestigious encyclopaedia ‘Artists and Galleries of Australia and New Zealand’, along with a reproduction of a Pope ‘Centralian Desertscape’.

The Establishment of the First Science-Art Centre

1980: Robert Pope established his first Science-Art Centre in South Australia to enable the implementation of Kun Huang’s modification to Einstein’s mathematical world-view structure in order to demonstrate how Buckminster Fuller’s synergistic universe embraced the survival theories of C P Snow. The Centre’s mathematician Chris Illert commenced work on developing Science-Art mathematics in order to generate super-computer images related to seashell evolution. Classical-art theory was derived on sacred geometry golden-mean mathematics, found in the construction of seashell life forms. Evolutionary changes to these sacred geometry designs of seashells was held to be caused by creative physics laws which Robert Pope declared to be acting negentropically toward infinity, in defiance of Einstein’s world view.

The Science-Art Centre’s Research

1981: The artist Robert Todonai joined the Centre as Pope’s protege, studying the mathematical structure of Mandelbrot’s 1980 discovery of fractal logic. Together, the artists liaised with Dr George R. Cockburn, Royal Fellow of Medicine (London), in order to gain insight into the fractal logic involved in the functioning of artistic creation within the human cerebral functioning. They concurred that the living process interacted with the entropic energy system as was also proposed by the 1937 Nobel Laureate in Medicine, Szent Gyorgyi, whose theories were upheld by C P Snow. They began to examine aspects of the workings of the molecule of emotion discovered in 1972 by Dr Candace Pert. Dr Cockburn and Robert Pope delivered a joint paper at the 1981 Australia and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science (ANZAAS) Conference. The Australian Commonwealth Department of Foreign Affairs greatly honoured Robert Pope by reproducing one of his Science-Art paintings on the front cover of its Foreign Affairs Record and publishing his world peace theories therein.

1986: The Science-Art Research Centre had published several books by Dr Cockburn, linking cancer to the evolution of consciousness and he arranged for his artist colleague Robert Pope to receive an Artist-in-Residency on campus at the University of Sydney, to work alongside a cancer research team. Pope’s theories were included into a cancer research paper published by the University News. Within the paper the artist predicted the importance of the Centre’s life-energy mathematics being developed by its mathematician. Eminent physicists, infuriated over an artist daring to modify Albert Einstein’s entropic world-view, attempted in vain to have his comments removed. The ensuing furore made the front page of the Sydney Morning Herald in which Robert Pope was deemed a disgrace to the university’s scientific reputation.

!988: Robert Pope’s medical supervisor at the Queen Elizabeth II Research Institute for Mothers and Infants was interviewed by the Science Writer for the Australian Medical Observer, Dr Calvin Miller. Pope’s theories were acclaimed for asking the right questions towards the possible instigation of a ‘New Renaissance’ of scientific thought leading to the implementation of Sir C P Snow’s theories, (later, in 2012 the envisaged international Renaissance came into existence in association with the development of quantum biology at the University of Florence). As a result of this support from the medical world, Pope received a further Artist-in-Residency in the form of the 1989 Dorothy Knox Award for Distinguished Persons at the Dunmore Lang College: Macquarie University.

1989: Robert Pope’s and Robert Todonai’s proposed Australian Bicentennial Science-Art Exhibition in New York was cancelled due to intense covert scientific political lobbying in Canberra. However, support from twelve Local South Australian Councils and members of State Parliament ensured that their Australian Bicentenial Exhibitions went ahead. Their Centennial project was launched in Los Angeles under the auspices of the Hollywood Thalian Mental Health Organisation. Their work at the Hollywood Pacific Design Centre and at the exclusive Dyansen Galleries on Rodeo Drive, Beverly Hills earned them Decrees of Excellence in the Thalian Hollywood Walk of Fame. Upon the return to Australia, Robert Pope received another Artist-in-Residency from a college in Darwin, Australia.

1990: Two of the Centre’s Science-Art optical life-energy mathematical papers, previously published by Italy’s leading scientific journal, Il Nuovo Cimento were selected for reprinting by The SPIE Milestone Series of IEEE, the largest technological research institute in the world. The papers were acclaimed as important discoveries from the 20th Century. This completely validated Robert Pope’s controversial prediction at Sydney University four years earlier. The Encyclopaedia Artists and Galleries of Australia, 3rd Edition, Vol., 2 featured a copy of a Robert Pope Science-Art painting hailed as ‘an unprecedented pictorial survey of most recent attitudes and consolidated values’, by Dr Elwyn Lyn, AM, the art critic for the Australian and Chairman of the Visual Arts Board of Australia Council, repairing much of the damage caused by the slanderous attacks upon his reputation from within the Australian scientific establishment.

1993: Robert Pope’s paper ‘A Self Funding Model for Ethical Scientific Research through the Arts’ was published by the International Journal for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (LEONARDO), containing a supporting feature written by Dr George Cockburn. This journal, in the past, had been used to guide Australian governmental cultural policy. The present Ezine article is about implementing this funding model for the sciences. Proceeds from art sales are to be paid to the Science-Art Research Centre of Australia Incorporated as a non profit organisation for the purpose of helping to generate the Fuller-Snow super-computer using a similar research methodology that was successful with super-computers during the 1980s.

The Science-Art Centre: Approved Scientific Research Status

1995: The President of the Institute for Basic Research in America, Professor Ruggero Santilli, in collaboration with the Science-Art Centre’s mathematician, transformed the reprinted seashell mathematics into a life-energy physics format. This paper won international peer-reviewed acclaim for the discovery of new physics laws governing optimum biological growth and development through space-time, as predicted by China’s Professor Kun Huang sixteen years earlier. The Australian Federal Government awarded the Science-Art Centre an Approved Scientific Research Status after it was proven that organised scientific objections to this had been based upon incorrect assumptions. The Lord Mayor of the Tweed Shire in New South Wales, officially opened the Science-Art Research Centre’s stone Castle on The Hill overlooking the Tweed Valley near Mt Warning, built by the artists Robert Pope and Robert Todonai as a symbol of a New Renaisannce.

1996: Robert Pope received a full professorial title from the American Basic Research institute. Alarmed by the general dismissal of Sir C P Snow’s theories by Australian universities he wrote to the United Nations Secretariat claiming that Australia was unintentionally committing a major crime against humanity for ignoring Snow’s warning of impending disaster by basing Australian culture upon an unbalanced scientific world-view (Registered in the Australian National Archives). As a result the complaint was handed to the United Nations University Millennium Project Futures Research and Development Organisation. A peer reviewed investigation was instigated by its Australasian Node. This resulted in a later Decree of Excellence being awarded to Professor Robert Pope from the Australian Futures Studies and Development Division.

1999: Following the death of the Centre’s Bio-Aesthetician Dr Cockburn, his cancer research theories were reviewed in depth by the Science-Art Research Centre of Australia. It was found that entropic mathematics belonging to the Einsteinian world-view cannot generate healthy undistorted life-form simulations through space-time as the Centre’s Science-Art mathematics did. C P Snow’s widening anti-life gulf between modern science and artistic creativity was associated with the rationale of entropic scientific thought being in constant conflict with the negentropic disposition of the molecule of emotion. Dr Cockburn’s work was seen to explain aspects of artistic creativity in terms of asymmetrical electromagnetic optical cerebral activity. By viewing science-art paintings through glasses with asymmetrical electromagnetic lensing, the images depicted holographic properties. The same phenomenon occurred when viewing computer generated pictures within the book The Beauty of Fractals-Images of Complex Dynamical Systems. The Centre’s discovery upgraded the conclusion in the chapter written by Professor Gert Eilenberger, entitled Freedom, Science and Aesthetics, which was about constructing Snow’s bridge linking the cultures of science and art through quantum biology. Eilenberger concluded his chapter by stating: ‘That is part of the excitement surrounding these pictures. They demonstrate that out of research an inner connection, a bridge, can be made between rational scientific insight and emotional aesthetic appeal; these two modes of cognition of the human species are beginning to concur in their estimation of what constitutes nature’. The scientists however, did not know about the nature of the cerebral functioning of the Platonic Fullerene optical engineering mathematics that Fuller had placed into his synergistic world-view. However, the Science-Art artists had discovered this knowledge by themselves.

2000: The general public voted into existence Science-Art symbols at the Science-Art Centre’s Science-Art Festival in the Tweed Valley of Northern New South Wales. Those symbols later were to become part of the artwork supporting the 2012 fabric of Florence University’s New Measurement of Humanity Project.

2001: Following Professor Pope’s Science-Art lecture at Cambridge University during 2000, Chinese scientists who attended, realised that he had greatly honoured China’s greatest physicist. Pope was invited by the Chinese Government to lecture at Chinese Universities. A record of his address as guest of honour at the opening of the Art College at Yangzhou University contained the statement: ‘Evolutionary direction is provided by the constantly changing shapes of the evolving protein (within DNA), which when measured, demonstrates that it is evolving toward universal infinity.’ This concept, of course, is inconceivable within the Einsteinian world-view. A decade later on the 18th of February, 2011, Cornell University Library in the USA announced a quantum biological discovery by two Chinese scientists. They had used mathematics to describe why proteins in DNA were enfolded in a strange way in defiance of 20th Century understanding of the second law of thermodynamics. This linked asymmetric electromagnetic engineering principles into the construction of C P Snow’s bridge between science and art. Later, cancer researchers in the USA developed Szent-Gyorgyi’s theories in which asymmetrical electromagnetic carbon signalling, associated with Snow’s entropy versus negentropy theories, sustained the Centre’s decision to make the Snow-bridge a medical science to guide ennobling government, a concept envisaged by the greek philosopher Aristotle.

2004: The Science-Art Centre’s Public Events Manager, Irene Brown, in liaison with the New South Wales State Ministry for The Arts and the Tweed Shire City of the Arts Space Project, organised the 2004 Science-Art Festival. For two months, international and local artists, scientists, environmentalists and the local community met to discuss, debate and interpret the synergy of art and science. The Centre produced a sequential program including: forums and debate; creative practice; and an exhibition of outcomes and disciplines via the Chinese Science-Art Exhibition (The Ministry for the Arts in conjunction with the Tweed Shire had flown over from Nanjing University a Science-Art delegation from its Department of Aeronautics). During three seminars guest speakers lectured in their field of expertise on the subjects of an infinite universe (contrary to the Einsteinian world-view). The design of symbols, text and artworks interpreted human values derived from C P Snow’s Classical Arts, as were encompassed by the Platonic ‘Science for ethical ends’. In particular, the Chinese Delegation accompanied by the Cultural Officer from the Chinese Embassy in Canberra, the Director of the Australian Sustainability Institute and Professor Pope, discussed the Fullerene-Snow theories for world peace, agreeing that Buckminster Fuller’s World Game Theory could be somehow implemented to achieve Fuller’s objective to ‘make the world work, for 100% of humanity, in the shortest possible time, through spontaneous cooperation, without ecological offence or the disadvantage of anyone’.

2005: The Head of the Chinese Delegation, Professor Cam Ming, returned to Australia under the auspices of the Southern Cross University. His previous enthusiasm about the concept of C P Snow’s bridging of the two cultures appeared to be somewhat subdued upon his return to Australia although the Science-Art Centre’s Castle featured on the front cover of his biography book published in China. He appeared unable to echo the former spirit of confidence that existed within the Chinese Art Administration encountered by Professor Pope in China during 2001 when he had been awarded a professorial honour. It was as if the Chinese educational system had finally bowed to the inevitable entropic logic of science that C P Snow and Buckminster Fuller had warned about. The Science-Art Centre then began to focus on helping to create a super-computer program to upgrade the Fullerene Chemistry that the three 1996 Nobel Laureates in Chemistry had chosen to become the basis of their new medical science and technology. The upgrading of the computer program to be referred to as Platonic Fullerene Chemistry, embracing the various forms of forbidden negentropic, asymmetrical, electromagnetic logic that nanotechnology was beginning to discover existed.

2006 – 2008: The Science-Art Research Centre of Australia began to focus upon Immanuel Kant’s electromagnetic ethic for perpetual peace on earth. His concept of space-time had been modified by the Centre’s discovery of new physics governing optimum biological growth through space-time. Kant’s definition of aesthetics as the philosophy of art appreciation was logical, but his electromagnetic ethic, although derived from the Platonic ‘Science for ethical ends’ was not in accord to its a priori physics principles. The ancient ethical Greek ‘Wisdom Through Beauty’ alluded to an entanglement between the visual effects caused by the energies of Einsteinian chaos and the Platonic spiritual (holographic) optics of evolutionarty intelligence. Einstein would not allow the mythogogical mathematics to exist that Plato allowed to represent reality before the Egyptian creator god Atum (Atom) proclaimed ‘Let there be light’. The seriousness of this can be explained: A painting of a mountainside covered by majestic waterfalls produces emotion-forming substances that lead to appreciation of the entropic destruction of the mountain’. Hidden within that process also lies the key to C P Snow’s appreciation of the Classical concept of ‘Wisdom Through Beauty’: To a young German youth passing through puberty, the appreciation of the beauty of a blond, blue eyed German girl may have a powerful aesthetically pleasing impact, but when associated with the ravings of an entropy-worshipping Hitler, the emotional result, which lacks Platonic love, can never be considered to be ethical.

C P Snow’s ethical values belonged to the Platonic tradition of Greek philosophy, which for over two hundred years fused ethics into Anaxagoras’ theory of creation based upon ancient Egyptian mythological, sacred-geometrical mathematics. This resulted in the establishment of the atomistic Platonic Science for ethical ends during the 3rd century BC in Greece, and the Centre continued to publish books on this subject. Einstein, on the other hand, was considered to have developed his theory of relativity from what he called the mythological-mathematics belonging to the ancient Babylonian empire (in 2012, the Centre located a book published in 1957 by the New York University Library, entitled ‘Babylonian Myth to Modern Science’, which argued likewise). Plato and other philosophers such as Philo, Hesoid, Plotinus and Al Haitham argued that employing the optics of vision to gain knowledge of universal reality would lead to the emergence of the destructive properties of unformed matter within the physical atom. Plato’s geometrical logic upholding that concept was derived from his axiom that ‘all is geometry’. The Egyptian metaphysical ethical ethos developed by Plato was about preventing the universe from reverting to chaos. By placing ethics into the Greek creator myth of Anaxagoras, derived from the Egyptian one, its mathematical structure became what is now recognised as an expression of a complex fractal dynamical system: the logic of which extends to infinity. Conversely, Einstein’s concept of visual observer participancy, being the basis of quantum mechanics, produced E = MC squared, the symbol of the destructive chaos that Sir C P Snow considered to be unfit to govern modern science.

2009: The artist-philosopher Robert Pope and the Science-Art Centre’s former mathematician, Chris Illert, both received Gold Medal Laureate awards from the Telesio Galilei Academy of Science-London.

The 21st Century Renaissance

2010: The ’21st Century Renaissance’ came into being on the 24th of September when the Giorgio Napolitano Medal was awarded to Professor Massimo Pregnolato and Professor Paolo Manzelli on behalf of the Republic of Italy for their quantum biological discoveries. Their ‘3rd Quantumbionet Workshop, 2010, recognised that their work was part of the Florentine New Measurement of Humanity Project conducted by Professor Paolo Manzelli, Professor Massimo Pregnolato and Professor Robert Pope’. The prediction that Robert Pope’s theories would help establish a New Renaissance, published in the Australian Medical Observer in 1988, written by its Science Writer, Dr Calvin Miller, had come true.

2011: The Professor of Electrical Engineering, Wolfgang Weber, the former Head of the Development Sector in the AEF-Telefunken Institute of Automatic Control in Germany, recipient of the 1985 Albert Einstein Order of Honour and recipient of the 1998 Humboldt-Plaque of the Humboldt Society of Science Art and Education, proclaimed Professor Robert Pope as being a World authority on bringing to fruition the blueprint for the constriction of Sir C P Snow’s bridge, uniting the culture of science with the culture of art. The discoverer of the electromagnetic field, Hans Christian Oersted had based his Doctoral Dissertation upon Immanuel Kants search for the electromagnetic ethic. Friedrich Schelling had modified Kant’s space-time theories by making the physics principles upholding the ancient Platonic Science for Ethical Ends, the priority concept to Kant’s world-view. As a result of this, the work of those scientists who proposed the electromagnetic motor driving the sperm to the ovum, was taken into account. Upon entry into the ovum the female electromagnetic field was held to morph that motor into the centriole, which in turn, energises the first bone created in the embryo with the same seashell life-energy forces discovered by the Science-Art Research Centre during the 1980s. The resonating electromagnetic Platonic ‘Music of the Spheres’ containing the ethical purpose of the universe was then transmitted to the cerebral and emotional mechanisms within the human metabolism as documented by Texas University’s Dr Richard Merrick in his book ‘Interference’. The Science-Art Research Centre’s sole objective then, was to help in the construction of the Fuller-Snow super-computer. Immanuel Kant’s envisioned base for his predicted League of Nations had been modified to upgrade Aristotle’s ethical science to guide ennobling government in order to prevent civilisation from reverting to primordial chaos. Professor Robert Pope’s Platonic Fullerene Chemistry, as a medical science to develop a Creative Physics human survival supra-technology, was given a firm legal basis by the Centre’s colleague Michael Byrne, Dr of International Law, supported as being also a medical science, by the Centre’s Medical Director Dr Peter Yaxley. Together with Professor Wolfgang Weber’s work all this research is considered the means to bring Sir C P Snow’s great vision to life.

2012: The Science-Art Research Centre of Australia published its book entitled ‘The 21st Century Renaissance’, which was given scientific appraisal in Europe and Britain under the auspices of the Telesio Galilei Academy of Science, in London and also in Italy and China under the auspices of the Florentine New Measurement of Humanity Project.

© Professor Robert Pope, Advisor to the President Oceania and Australasia of the Institute for Theoretical Physics and Advanced Mathematics (IFM) Einstein-Galilei