College Grads Turn to Public Service

As jobs became scarce during the recession, many college graduates turned to public service work, many taking nonprofit and US military jobs. From 2008 to 2009 alone, 16 percent more college graduates worked for the federal government and 11 percent more worked for nonprofit groups, according to an analysis by The New York Times of data from the American Community Survey of the United States Census Bureau. A Labor Department survey showed that the amount of college grads going into these jobs continued to rise in 2010.

Since the start of the recession in 2007, an increasing and steady number of college graduates (tens of thousands) also joined the armed forces, with the Navy and the Army seeing the biggest increases. About 60 percent more graduates joined the Navy in 2011 than in 2007.

“When the economy worsens, as it has in recent years, we certainly see a surge in the number of young people who are highly qualified, who want to join the military,” said Beth Asch, a researcher for the RAND Corp – an organization which has studied U.S. military recruitment for over 40 years.

“Since the mid-2000s, the unemployment rate has essentially doubled,” she said. Since then, the Army and Navy saw more than a 50 percent increase in recruits with college degrees, the RAND Corp reported in 2012.

According to statistics in 2011 from numerous public-service organizations, the number of college graduates nationwide seeking nonprofit work with organizations like AmeriCorps, the Peace Corps and Teach for America also sharply increased.

“It’s not uncommon for me to hear of over 100 applications for a nonprofit position, sometimes many more than that, and many more Ivy League college graduates applying than before,” Diana Aviv, chief executive of Independent Sector, a trade group for nonprofits, told The New York Times in 2011. “Some of these people haven’t been employed for a while and are happy to have something. But once they’re there, they’ve recalibrated and reoriented themselves toward public service.”

Applications for Americorps positions nearly tripled from 91,399 in 2008 to 258,829 in 2010, and 582,000 applications were submitted in 2011. The number of applicants for Teach for America also climbed 32 percent in 2011. In 2012, Teach for America received the highest amount of applicants to date – more than 48,000.

Limited work in the private sector and a weak economy weren’t considered sole contributors to the new trend, however. Student loan forgiveness programs, presidential support and a more prevalent desire to serve noted among the millennial generation were also believed to be significantly contributing factors.

Some cited President Barack Obama’s popularity with youth, background as a community organizer, and his promise to make public service “cool” which helped spark young people’s interest in public service careers.

In a 2007 interview with Time magazine, Obama, then a U.S. senator, said that he could “make government and public service cool again” if elected president:

“One of the things I think I can bring to the presidency is to make government and public service cool again. There’s such a hunger among young people for some outlet for their idealism. That’s why you see these movements around Darfur or climate change. You don’t see it expressed in terms of people wanting to serve in the Justice Department or the foreign service. Why should they, when the core missions of those agencies have been gutted? “)

Another perk and influence for recent graduates to enter public service was the federal public service loan forgiveness program, created in 2007. The program grants forgiveness of student loans for those who work in public service for 10 years.

“I think there’s this great need in so many different areas that my generation is just responding to,” Courtney Washburn, a 2010 graduate who decided to make a living in public service, said to Knox News.

“One thing my generation is starting to see is that money isn’t an end all,” says 22 year old graduate Warren Pineda. “We value intrinsic rewards other than money. It’s just trying to be the change that you want to see, because if you don’t do it, nobody else will.”

Some political scientists have said that millennials – those who grew up in the 1990s or the 21st century – are “unusually big-hearted,” attributing this in part to extra community service requirements they had in school.

“This generation grew up with big events like 9/11 and Hurricane Katrina,” said Sandy Scott, senior communications adviser for the Corporation for National and Community Service in Washington, D.C. – the federal agency that oversees AmeriCorps. “They were exposed in K-12 education at an early age to the rewarding value of volunteering, a new but growing phenomenon. They want to make a hands-on difference, so it’s no surprise they’re flocking to AmeriCorps and other public-service opportunities.”

Although the numbers of educated young people working in public service jobs had been rising slightly since the turn of the millennium, the sudden uptick in 2009 suggests that it may have been the absence of private sector work, and not big-heartedness, that forced more recent grads to seek work in the public sector. From 2008 to 2012, private jobs were down 4 percent; the federal government, meanwhile, expanded by 11.4 percent.

Although nonprofits were happy to have energetic, educated, inexpensive new-hires, some worry that their popularity among today’s youth may not outlast this period of increased unemployment. Several studies have found however, including Paul Oyer’s 2008 findings on M.B.A.’s who graduate in recessions, that economic conditions at the start of a worker’s career can have a strong impact on one’s long-term career trajectory.

That ending may, in fact, not be too far ahead of us now. This month, the Employment and Training Administration of the US Department of Labor reported that first-time unemployment insurance claims were down 330,000 – a low level not seen since January 2008. Bloomberg News cautions, however, that the data does not account for swings that take place at the beginning of a year.

The last three months, moreover, have reportedly marketed the largest four-year decline for public employment since World War II – one public employee was fired for every five private sector workers who found a job. Since the end of 2008, nearly 700,000 public sector employees have lost their jobs, mainly due to budget cuts.

Those who lost their job were more likely to not have a post-secondary education, data presented in “The College Advantage: Weathering the Economic Storm” indicates. Almost four out of every five jobs lost from December 2007 to January 2010 belonged to workers without a college degree, and jobs gained during the recovery have not been returned to those workers, but taken by workers with a bachelor’s or higher degree, or postsecondary training.

Human Survival Timeline to the 21st Century Renaissance

The following article stresses the importance of the fact that the Times Literary Supplement included Sir C P Snow’s book, ‘Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution’, in its list of the 100 books that most influenced Western public discourse since the Second World War (‘The Times’ London. 30 December 2008).

Funding is now urgently needed for research into the Platonic Medical Science for Ethical Ends which has been derived from advancing Snow’s human survival theories. The following summary of research already undertaken by the Science-Art Research Centre of Australia, sets out a framework for further research and actions which could facilitate the funding required through the sale of relevant artwork.

The Pioneering of Platonic Fullerene Chemistry

Professor Robert Pope, born in Bendigo on December 1939, is listed as a Science-Art artist-philosopher in Who’s Who of the World. He is also an Enzinearticle Global Celebrity Author and the father of Platonic Fullerene Chemistry. In 2009 he received a Gold Medal Laureate, awarded by the Telesio-Galilei Academy of Science, London. He worked with the late former Head of the Development Sector of the AEG-Telefunken Institute of Automatic Control in Frankfurt, Hamburg and Berlin, Professor Wolfgang Weber, to establish the basis of Buckminster Fuller’s World Game Theory, in order to implement C P Snow’s human survival theories through supercomputers. As Director of the Science-Art Research Centre of Australia Incorporated, Robert Pope authored a new book, ‘The 21st Century Renaissance’, published in 2012, in liaison with Florence University’s New Measurement of Humanity Project.

Pope launched the Pope Art Gallery in Alice Springs in Central Australia in 1994 and two years later won the inaugural Northern Territory Caltex Art Award, later to become the Alice Art Prize. He began to apply knowledge from his previous professional work, in seismic computer mapping, to remove what he referred to as ‘noise interfering with the human creative process,’ honouring the survival theories of Sir C P Snow. During the 1970s he organised at his own expense and in collaboration with the Western Australian Department of Native Welfare, a special art school for disadvantaged aboriginal children. From these experiences, Pope believed that Western Science, by ignoring human creativity physics principles, had been built on false scientific assumptions, which C P Snow had warned would destroy civilisation. In 2008, ‘The Times Literary Supplement’ included Snow’s ‘Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution’ in its list of 100 books that most influenced Western Public discourse since the Second World War.

21st Century Renaissance: Timeline to Infinity

The culmination of years of dedicated and meticulous research was marked with the publication in 2012 of the book, ‘The 21st Century Renaissance’, by the Science-Art Research Centre of Australia, directed by Robert Pope. The following timeline traces Robert Pope’s long journey which led to this publication.

The reunification of Science and Art Project

1972: The Art Academy of Western Australia Environment Division Newsletter (Australian National Library Archives) announced that the artist Robert Pope and the eminent geologist Dr John Daniels (The new mineral ‘Danielsite’ was named in his honour) were working together to reunite science with art. Robert Pope had become convinced that the theories of Sir C P Snow had been given rigorous scientific structure by the American engineer Buckminster Fuller. This was later confirmed six years later within Fuller’s biography, written by Harvard University’s Novartis Professor, Amy Edmondson, who stated that Fuller had derived his synergistic universe from Platonic mathematics. The mathematics was the basis of C P Snow’s ancient Greek artistic culture.

1973: The artist Robert Pope was awarded a Western Australian Bursary to further his research into Sir C P Snow’s concepts about bridging the culture gap between science and art. Pope argued that Fuller’s book ‘Utopia or Oblivion’ fully supported Snow’s theories.

1974: The Australian National Bulletin featured Pope’s Science-Art theories. A letter to the editor of the Bulletin, written by Professor John Frodsham, Head of the School of Human Communications at Murdoch University, Western Australia, claimed that Robert Pope was the first artist living to have crossed the C P Snowline. The artist later delivered a lecture on ‘Crossing the Snowline’, at the University of Western Australia, to eminent visiting black hole physicists.

1978: Robert Pope received a Science-Art Residency at the Waite Research Institute of the University of Adelaide. The Australian Department of Foreign Affairs arranged an official visit between the artist and Princeton University’s Black Hole physicist, Remo Ruffini, during his Australian lecture tour. The Science Division of Australian National Television recorded the artist’s theories on film. Ruffini organised for UNESCO to invite Robert Pope to attend the 1979 Second Marcell Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, as a Special Australian Science-Art delegate.

Towards the 21st Century Renaissance: The Development of C P Snow’s Theories

1979: ABC Television screened Robert Pope’s Science-Art documentary into their international eight part series entitled The Scientists-Profiles of Discovery. His documentary was subtitled ‘Pope the Catalyst’. The Commonwealth Department of Trade and Export Development awarded a grant to publish Robert Pope’s Science-Art book for distribution to delegates attending the World Summit Meeting in Trieste, held to celebrate the 100th Anniversary of the birth date of Albert Einstein. The ultimate objective of the book was to bring to Australia C P Snow’s envisaged super-technology in the form of a human-survival medical science. The Head of the Chinese Solid State Physics Delegation attending the meeting, China’s most highly awarded physicist, Kun Huang, provided Pope with a research methodology to modify Einstein’s world-view in order to accommodate the human survival theories of Sir C P Snow. The proposed research suggested the compilation of formulae based upon Snow’s emphasis on linking the mathematical logic upholding Classical art theory with modern science. The relevant geometrical simulations were to be used to generate life-form simulations through space-time, using the world’s seashell fossil record to provide rigorous evolutionary proof statements supporting Snow’s work.

Robert Pope’s Science-Art theories were mentioned in the prestigious encyclopaedia ‘Artists and Galleries of Australia and New Zealand’, along with a reproduction of a Pope ‘Centralian Desertscape’.

The Establishment of the First Science-Art Centre

1980: Robert Pope established his first Science-Art Centre in South Australia to enable the implementation of Kun Huang’s modification to Einstein’s mathematical world-view structure in order to demonstrate how Buckminster Fuller’s synergistic universe embraced the survival theories of C P Snow. The Centre’s mathematician Chris Illert commenced work on developing Science-Art mathematics in order to generate super-computer images related to seashell evolution. Classical-art theory was derived on sacred geometry golden-mean mathematics, found in the construction of seashell life forms. Evolutionary changes to these sacred geometry designs of seashells was held to be caused by creative physics laws which Robert Pope declared to be acting negentropically toward infinity, in defiance of Einstein’s world view.

The Science-Art Centre’s Research

1981: The artist Robert Todonai joined the Centre as Pope’s protege, studying the mathematical structure of Mandelbrot’s 1980 discovery of fractal logic. Together, the artists liaised with Dr George R. Cockburn, Royal Fellow of Medicine (London), in order to gain insight into the fractal logic involved in the functioning of artistic creation within the human cerebral functioning. They concurred that the living process interacted with the entropic energy system as was also proposed by the 1937 Nobel Laureate in Medicine, Szent Gyorgyi, whose theories were upheld by C P Snow. They began to examine aspects of the workings of the molecule of emotion discovered in 1972 by Dr Candace Pert. Dr Cockburn and Robert Pope delivered a joint paper at the 1981 Australia and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science (ANZAAS) Conference. The Australian Commonwealth Department of Foreign Affairs greatly honoured Robert Pope by reproducing one of his Science-Art paintings on the front cover of its Foreign Affairs Record and publishing his world peace theories therein.

1986: The Science-Art Research Centre had published several books by Dr Cockburn, linking cancer to the evolution of consciousness and he arranged for his artist colleague Robert Pope to receive an Artist-in-Residency on campus at the University of Sydney, to work alongside a cancer research team. Pope’s theories were included into a cancer research paper published by the University News. Within the paper the artist predicted the importance of the Centre’s life-energy mathematics being developed by its mathematician. Eminent physicists, infuriated over an artist daring to modify Albert Einstein’s entropic world-view, attempted in vain to have his comments removed. The ensuing furore made the front page of the Sydney Morning Herald in which Robert Pope was deemed a disgrace to the university’s scientific reputation.

!988: Robert Pope’s medical supervisor at the Queen Elizabeth II Research Institute for Mothers and Infants was interviewed by the Science Writer for the Australian Medical Observer, Dr Calvin Miller. Pope’s theories were acclaimed for asking the right questions towards the possible instigation of a ‘New Renaissance’ of scientific thought leading to the implementation of Sir C P Snow’s theories, (later, in 2012 the envisaged international Renaissance came into existence in association with the development of quantum biology at the University of Florence). As a result of this support from the medical world, Pope received a further Artist-in-Residency in the form of the 1989 Dorothy Knox Award for Distinguished Persons at the Dunmore Lang College: Macquarie University.

1989: Robert Pope’s and Robert Todonai’s proposed Australian Bicentennial Science-Art Exhibition in New York was cancelled due to intense covert scientific political lobbying in Canberra. However, support from twelve Local South Australian Councils and members of State Parliament ensured that their Australian Bicentenial Exhibitions went ahead. Their Centennial project was launched in Los Angeles under the auspices of the Hollywood Thalian Mental Health Organisation. Their work at the Hollywood Pacific Design Centre and at the exclusive Dyansen Galleries on Rodeo Drive, Beverly Hills earned them Decrees of Excellence in the Thalian Hollywood Walk of Fame. Upon the return to Australia, Robert Pope received another Artist-in-Residency from a college in Darwin, Australia.

1990: Two of the Centre’s Science-Art optical life-energy mathematical papers, previously published by Italy’s leading scientific journal, Il Nuovo Cimento were selected for reprinting by The SPIE Milestone Series of IEEE, the largest technological research institute in the world. The papers were acclaimed as important discoveries from the 20th Century. This completely validated Robert Pope’s controversial prediction at Sydney University four years earlier. The Encyclopaedia Artists and Galleries of Australia, 3rd Edition, Vol., 2 featured a copy of a Robert Pope Science-Art painting hailed as ‘an unprecedented pictorial survey of most recent attitudes and consolidated values’, by Dr Elwyn Lyn, AM, the art critic for the Australian and Chairman of the Visual Arts Board of Australia Council, repairing much of the damage caused by the slanderous attacks upon his reputation from within the Australian scientific establishment.

1993: Robert Pope’s paper ‘A Self Funding Model for Ethical Scientific Research through the Arts’ was published by the International Journal for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (LEONARDO), containing a supporting feature written by Dr George Cockburn. This journal, in the past, had been used to guide Australian governmental cultural policy. The present Ezine article is about implementing this funding model for the sciences. Proceeds from art sales are to be paid to the Science-Art Research Centre of Australia Incorporated as a non profit organisation for the purpose of helping to generate the Fuller-Snow super-computer using a similar research methodology that was successful with super-computers during the 1980s.

The Science-Art Centre: Approved Scientific Research Status

1995: The President of the Institute for Basic Research in America, Professor Ruggero Santilli, in collaboration with the Science-Art Centre’s mathematician, transformed the reprinted seashell mathematics into a life-energy physics format. This paper won international peer-reviewed acclaim for the discovery of new physics laws governing optimum biological growth and development through space-time, as predicted by China’s Professor Kun Huang sixteen years earlier. The Australian Federal Government awarded the Science-Art Centre an Approved Scientific Research Status after it was proven that organised scientific objections to this had been based upon incorrect assumptions. The Lord Mayor of the Tweed Shire in New South Wales, officially opened the Science-Art Research Centre’s stone Castle on The Hill overlooking the Tweed Valley near Mt Warning, built by the artists Robert Pope and Robert Todonai as a symbol of a New Renaisannce.

1996: Robert Pope received a full professorial title from the American Basic Research institute. Alarmed by the general dismissal of Sir C P Snow’s theories by Australian universities he wrote to the United Nations Secretariat claiming that Australia was unintentionally committing a major crime against humanity for ignoring Snow’s warning of impending disaster by basing Australian culture upon an unbalanced scientific world-view (Registered in the Australian National Archives). As a result the complaint was handed to the United Nations University Millennium Project Futures Research and Development Organisation. A peer reviewed investigation was instigated by its Australasian Node. This resulted in a later Decree of Excellence being awarded to Professor Robert Pope from the Australian Futures Studies and Development Division.

1999: Following the death of the Centre’s Bio-Aesthetician Dr Cockburn, his cancer research theories were reviewed in depth by the Science-Art Research Centre of Australia. It was found that entropic mathematics belonging to the Einsteinian world-view cannot generate healthy undistorted life-form simulations through space-time as the Centre’s Science-Art mathematics did. C P Snow’s widening anti-life gulf between modern science and artistic creativity was associated with the rationale of entropic scientific thought being in constant conflict with the negentropic disposition of the molecule of emotion. Dr Cockburn’s work was seen to explain aspects of artistic creativity in terms of asymmetrical electromagnetic optical cerebral activity. By viewing science-art paintings through glasses with asymmetrical electromagnetic lensing, the images depicted holographic properties. The same phenomenon occurred when viewing computer generated pictures within the book The Beauty of Fractals-Images of Complex Dynamical Systems. The Centre’s discovery upgraded the conclusion in the chapter written by Professor Gert Eilenberger, entitled Freedom, Science and Aesthetics, which was about constructing Snow’s bridge linking the cultures of science and art through quantum biology. Eilenberger concluded his chapter by stating: ‘That is part of the excitement surrounding these pictures. They demonstrate that out of research an inner connection, a bridge, can be made between rational scientific insight and emotional aesthetic appeal; these two modes of cognition of the human species are beginning to concur in their estimation of what constitutes nature’. The scientists however, did not know about the nature of the cerebral functioning of the Platonic Fullerene optical engineering mathematics that Fuller had placed into his synergistic world-view. However, the Science-Art artists had discovered this knowledge by themselves.

2000: The general public voted into existence Science-Art symbols at the Science-Art Centre’s Science-Art Festival in the Tweed Valley of Northern New South Wales. Those symbols later were to become part of the artwork supporting the 2012 fabric of Florence University’s New Measurement of Humanity Project.

2001: Following Professor Pope’s Science-Art lecture at Cambridge University during 2000, Chinese scientists who attended, realised that he had greatly honoured China’s greatest physicist. Pope was invited by the Chinese Government to lecture at Chinese Universities. A record of his address as guest of honour at the opening of the Art College at Yangzhou University contained the statement: ‘Evolutionary direction is provided by the constantly changing shapes of the evolving protein (within DNA), which when measured, demonstrates that it is evolving toward universal infinity.’ This concept, of course, is inconceivable within the Einsteinian world-view. A decade later on the 18th of February, 2011, Cornell University Library in the USA announced a quantum biological discovery by two Chinese scientists. They had used mathematics to describe why proteins in DNA were enfolded in a strange way in defiance of 20th Century understanding of the second law of thermodynamics. This linked asymmetric electromagnetic engineering principles into the construction of C P Snow’s bridge between science and art. Later, cancer researchers in the USA developed Szent-Gyorgyi’s theories in which asymmetrical electromagnetic carbon signalling, associated with Snow’s entropy versus negentropy theories, sustained the Centre’s decision to make the Snow-bridge a medical science to guide ennobling government, a concept envisaged by the greek philosopher Aristotle.

2004: The Science-Art Centre’s Public Events Manager, Irene Brown, in liaison with the New South Wales State Ministry for The Arts and the Tweed Shire City of the Arts Space Project, organised the 2004 Science-Art Festival. For two months, international and local artists, scientists, environmentalists and the local community met to discuss, debate and interpret the synergy of art and science. The Centre produced a sequential program including: forums and debate; creative practice; and an exhibition of outcomes and disciplines via the Chinese Science-Art Exhibition (The Ministry for the Arts in conjunction with the Tweed Shire had flown over from Nanjing University a Science-Art delegation from its Department of Aeronautics). During three seminars guest speakers lectured in their field of expertise on the subjects of an infinite universe (contrary to the Einsteinian world-view). The design of symbols, text and artworks interpreted human values derived from C P Snow’s Classical Arts, as were encompassed by the Platonic ‘Science for ethical ends’. In particular, the Chinese Delegation accompanied by the Cultural Officer from the Chinese Embassy in Canberra, the Director of the Australian Sustainability Institute and Professor Pope, discussed the Fullerene-Snow theories for world peace, agreeing that Buckminster Fuller’s World Game Theory could be somehow implemented to achieve Fuller’s objective to ‘make the world work, for 100% of humanity, in the shortest possible time, through spontaneous cooperation, without ecological offence or the disadvantage of anyone’.

2005: The Head of the Chinese Delegation, Professor Cam Ming, returned to Australia under the auspices of the Southern Cross University. His previous enthusiasm about the concept of C P Snow’s bridging of the two cultures appeared to be somewhat subdued upon his return to Australia although the Science-Art Centre’s Castle featured on the front cover of his biography book published in China. He appeared unable to echo the former spirit of confidence that existed within the Chinese Art Administration encountered by Professor Pope in China during 2001 when he had been awarded a professorial honour. It was as if the Chinese educational system had finally bowed to the inevitable entropic logic of science that C P Snow and Buckminster Fuller had warned about. The Science-Art Centre then began to focus on helping to create a super-computer program to upgrade the Fullerene Chemistry that the three 1996 Nobel Laureates in Chemistry had chosen to become the basis of their new medical science and technology. The upgrading of the computer program to be referred to as Platonic Fullerene Chemistry, embracing the various forms of forbidden negentropic, asymmetrical, electromagnetic logic that nanotechnology was beginning to discover existed.

2006 – 2008: The Science-Art Research Centre of Australia began to focus upon Immanuel Kant’s electromagnetic ethic for perpetual peace on earth. His concept of space-time had been modified by the Centre’s discovery of new physics governing optimum biological growth through space-time. Kant’s definition of aesthetics as the philosophy of art appreciation was logical, but his electromagnetic ethic, although derived from the Platonic ‘Science for ethical ends’ was not in accord to its a priori physics principles. The ancient ethical Greek ‘Wisdom Through Beauty’ alluded to an entanglement between the visual effects caused by the energies of Einsteinian chaos and the Platonic spiritual (holographic) optics of evolutionarty intelligence. Einstein would not allow the mythogogical mathematics to exist that Plato allowed to represent reality before the Egyptian creator god Atum (Atom) proclaimed ‘Let there be light’. The seriousness of this can be explained: A painting of a mountainside covered by majestic waterfalls produces emotion-forming substances that lead to appreciation of the entropic destruction of the mountain’. Hidden within that process also lies the key to C P Snow’s appreciation of the Classical concept of ‘Wisdom Through Beauty’: To a young German youth passing through puberty, the appreciation of the beauty of a blond, blue eyed German girl may have a powerful aesthetically pleasing impact, but when associated with the ravings of an entropy-worshipping Hitler, the emotional result, which lacks Platonic love, can never be considered to be ethical.

C P Snow’s ethical values belonged to the Platonic tradition of Greek philosophy, which for over two hundred years fused ethics into Anaxagoras’ theory of creation based upon ancient Egyptian mythological, sacred-geometrical mathematics. This resulted in the establishment of the atomistic Platonic Science for ethical ends during the 3rd century BC in Greece, and the Centre continued to publish books on this subject. Einstein, on the other hand, was considered to have developed his theory of relativity from what he called the mythological-mathematics belonging to the ancient Babylonian empire (in 2012, the Centre located a book published in 1957 by the New York University Library, entitled ‘Babylonian Myth to Modern Science’, which argued likewise). Plato and other philosophers such as Philo, Hesoid, Plotinus and Al Haitham argued that employing the optics of vision to gain knowledge of universal reality would lead to the emergence of the destructive properties of unformed matter within the physical atom. Plato’s geometrical logic upholding that concept was derived from his axiom that ‘all is geometry’. The Egyptian metaphysical ethical ethos developed by Plato was about preventing the universe from reverting to chaos. By placing ethics into the Greek creator myth of Anaxagoras, derived from the Egyptian one, its mathematical structure became what is now recognised as an expression of a complex fractal dynamical system: the logic of which extends to infinity. Conversely, Einstein’s concept of visual observer participancy, being the basis of quantum mechanics, produced E = MC squared, the symbol of the destructive chaos that Sir C P Snow considered to be unfit to govern modern science.

2009: The artist-philosopher Robert Pope and the Science-Art Centre’s former mathematician, Chris Illert, both received Gold Medal Laureate awards from the Telesio Galilei Academy of Science-London.

The 21st Century Renaissance

2010: The ’21st Century Renaissance’ came into being on the 24th of September when the Giorgio Napolitano Medal was awarded to Professor Massimo Pregnolato and Professor Paolo Manzelli on behalf of the Republic of Italy for their quantum biological discoveries. Their ‘3rd Quantumbionet Workshop, 2010, recognised that their work was part of the Florentine New Measurement of Humanity Project conducted by Professor Paolo Manzelli, Professor Massimo Pregnolato and Professor Robert Pope’. The prediction that Robert Pope’s theories would help establish a New Renaissance, published in the Australian Medical Observer in 1988, written by its Science Writer, Dr Calvin Miller, had come true.

2011: The Professor of Electrical Engineering, Wolfgang Weber, the former Head of the Development Sector in the AEF-Telefunken Institute of Automatic Control in Germany, recipient of the 1985 Albert Einstein Order of Honour and recipient of the 1998 Humboldt-Plaque of the Humboldt Society of Science Art and Education, proclaimed Professor Robert Pope as being a World authority on bringing to fruition the blueprint for the constriction of Sir C P Snow’s bridge, uniting the culture of science with the culture of art. The discoverer of the electromagnetic field, Hans Christian Oersted had based his Doctoral Dissertation upon Immanuel Kants search for the electromagnetic ethic. Friedrich Schelling had modified Kant’s space-time theories by making the physics principles upholding the ancient Platonic Science for Ethical Ends, the priority concept to Kant’s world-view. As a result of this, the work of those scientists who proposed the electromagnetic motor driving the sperm to the ovum, was taken into account. Upon entry into the ovum the female electromagnetic field was held to morph that motor into the centriole, which in turn, energises the first bone created in the embryo with the same seashell life-energy forces discovered by the Science-Art Research Centre during the 1980s. The resonating electromagnetic Platonic ‘Music of the Spheres’ containing the ethical purpose of the universe was then transmitted to the cerebral and emotional mechanisms within the human metabolism as documented by Texas University’s Dr Richard Merrick in his book ‘Interference’. The Science-Art Research Centre’s sole objective then, was to help in the construction of the Fuller-Snow super-computer. Immanuel Kant’s envisioned base for his predicted League of Nations had been modified to upgrade Aristotle’s ethical science to guide ennobling government in order to prevent civilisation from reverting to primordial chaos. Professor Robert Pope’s Platonic Fullerene Chemistry, as a medical science to develop a Creative Physics human survival supra-technology, was given a firm legal basis by the Centre’s colleague Michael Byrne, Dr of International Law, supported as being also a medical science, by the Centre’s Medical Director Dr Peter Yaxley. Together with Professor Wolfgang Weber’s work all this research is considered the means to bring Sir C P Snow’s great vision to life.

2012: The Science-Art Research Centre of Australia published its book entitled ‘The 21st Century Renaissance’, which was given scientific appraisal in Europe and Britain under the auspices of the Telesio Galilei Academy of Science, in London and also in Italy and China under the auspices of the Florentine New Measurement of Humanity Project.

© Professor Robert Pope, Advisor to the President Oceania and Australasia of the Institute for Theoretical Physics and Advanced Mathematics (IFM) Einstein-Galilei

Immortality – The Final Dilemma

Scientists are on the brink of discovering the reason why we age and die. The secrets of immortality are soon to be revealed but will the breakthrough lead to the biggest dilemma ever faced by humankind? Who lives and who dies when the earth’s resources simply cannot sustain perpetual birth and immortality. Many believe that scientists already know how to extend peoples lives by decades. The dilemma is who chooses those who will benefit?

The Daily Telegraph of London reports: “Researchers believe boosting the amount of a naturally forming enzyme in the body could prevent cells dying and so lead to extended, healthier life spans”.

Spanish Breakthrough

Scientists have already learned that the protein telomerase helps maintain the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes. These act like the sealed ends of shoelaces that stop them unravelling. As we age, and our cells divide, these caps become frayed and shorten until eventually they become so damaged that the cell dies.

Scientists believe boosting our natural levels of telomerase could rejuvenate them. A team at the Spanish National Cancer Centre in Madrid tested the theory on mice and found those genetically engineered to produce 10 times the normal levels of telomerase lived 50 percent longer than normal.

Maria Blasco, who led the research, told the New Scientist the enzyme was capable of turning ‘a normal, mortal cell into an immortal cell’. She added that she was optimistic that a similar approach may eventually lead to extended human life spans.

The Apartheid of Human Immortality

Will this next scientific step into the future present mankind with selective immortality? Once some practical form of extending life is discovered it will present an almost insurmountable political and moral impasse. By comparison the debates over abortion and euthanasia will be insignificant. Who will control this new science and most problematic of all decide who gets to be immortal?

Will there be affirmative action quotas; a social engineering experiment, which would be genocide dressed in an altruistic cloak? Will it apply for example to millions of starving Africans? There is compelling argument that there are insufficient natural resources to sustain those millions. Immortality granted will only exacerbate the problem of alternative liquidation by famine. It couldn’t happen? Stalin starved millions so that the economy could be boosted by the export of the grain needed to feed them. In the UK today medical resources are notorious for being allocated by post code. Social engineers too will be caught between a rock and a hard place.

Such a dilemma will cascade down through the castes and social classes inherent in all societies and cultures. There will be arguments and national passions aroused as the faceless unelected decide who are to be preserved and who will be given over so nature may take its course?

The Grim Reaper

For some there will be no escaping the Grim Reaper. But will the educated, the powerful, the influential, be able to buy their way to the top of the queue when the jabs are being rationed? Will a lottery be the answer or perhaps life on earth privileges extended to those who opt to die so that others may live?

Imagine the consequences if political scientists consider some ethnic groups more worthy than are others? Out of the blue mankind is faced by the imponderable contents of a Pandora’s Box from which will explode a far greater threat to mankind than that posed by nuclear weapons. It is a dilemma so problematic that the discovery may well have already been made and the pros and cons already being hammered out behind closed doors.

The War against Women?

There already exists, in the most developed and democratic societies, a pecking order of privilege. Some people are fast-tracked to high position and of course politicians and those in ‘the establishment’ already look after their own. Every year in Britain, and in other countries too, an unelected elite decide who is worthy of public recognition and who is not. Who, when the time comes, decides who is deserving of life and who is not?

On the threshold of the nightmare we realise that fathers, because of their position, could outlive their children and even their grandchildren. Imagine today you have a great-great grandparent who lived until 1822. Had the secret been known back then he might still be alive and in good health though his less privileged children had been dead for nearly one-hundred years.

Parents will live a normal lifespan but one or two of their children may be singled out to live twice as long as their siblings. A son who is a skilled doctor is more valuable to society than his less gifted brother or sister. Will females be considered more productive than men or vice versa?

How will 95 percent of the world’s population react when it finally sinks in that they must die naturally while the wealthy; the elite get to live for centuries longer? Time awaits no man and death has so far been the great leveller. What will happen when this is no longer true; when the rich and powerful no longer have to die while we poor peasants are worked to – death? ©

The Pew Center on Global Climate Change and the Business Environmental Leadership Council

The Pew Center on Global Climate Change was established in 1998 as a non-profit, non-partisan and independent organization whose mission is to address global warming (Pew). Alongside the creation of the Pew Center was the Business Environmental Leadership Council (BELC). BELC was created in the belief that businesses must develop efficient and effective solutions in addressing the climate problem. BELC has grown into the largest U.S. based association of corporations focused on addressing climate change. It currently consists of forty-one members representing $2 trillion in market capitalization and over three million employees (BELC). Many sectors are included, such as oil, gas, transportation, utilities, chemicals, and many more.

Many well known companies are part of BELC, including: Boeing, BP, GE, Hewlett-Packard Company, IBM, Intel, Lockheed Martin, Maytag, Novartis, Toyota, and many other companies with tremendous market influence (BELC). It is extremely interesting to note that the Pew Center doesn’t receive money from the companies of the BELC. Instead, it receives its money from The Pew Charitable Trusts (“Pew Charitable”). The Pew Center and BELC companies hold four core beliefs. First, they accept the views of most scientists that enough is known about climate change to finally do something about it. Second, businesses can and should establish and meet emission requirements, invest in new, more efficient products, practices, and technologies. Third, they recognize that The Kyoto Protocol is the first step in the international process. They believe that the countries that have joined the Protocol must implement the market-based mechanisms that are written into the Treaty. And lastly, they believe that significant progress can be made in both addressing climate change and sustaining economic growth in the United States (BELC). Before getting into the transnational controversy that the Pew Center and BELC is engaged in, examining the problem of global warming is needed to understand the context and scope of the issue.

Global Warming is a huge problem threatening the very existence of our species on this planet. In 2002, the Pentagon predicted that a sudden change in the Earth’s climate could cause

Prolonged droughts in northern Europe and the United States [that would] lead to acute food and water shortages, while typhoons and hurricanes devastate low-lying regions like Bangladesh. Africa is crippled by disease and famine; southern Europe is flooded with millions of refuges; in the Persian Gulf, Chinese and U.S. naval forces square off over access to Saudi oil fields. (Goodell 132)

This is what our own government believes will happen if the Earth’s temperature goes up a couple of degrees! Ross Gelbspan points out that since the start of industrialization in the 19th century, the human thirst for fossil fuels has gotten to the point where most scientists believe that global temperatures have risen at least 1 degree Fahrenheit over the last century (“Boiling” 24-27). In addition, the evidence shows that carbon dioxide levels have increased from 280 parts per million (ppm) over the last hundred years to about 380ppm today (“Denial” 16a). That means that within the next hundred years, if we keep up our pace, carbon dioxide levels will go up to a lot more than 480ppm because the amount of pollutants and greenhouse gases we are using keeps going up and up. The Pew Center has a policy program that does four main things to try to help the international and domestic community (the United States is responsible for 25% of global greenhouse emissions) clean up it’s act. First, it produces independent, non-partisan analyses of global warming policy alternatives in the United States and abroad. Second, it educates key decision-makers about policy options. Third, it encourages the domestic and international community to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. And lastly, they produce reports, policy briefs, working papers and Legislative/Administrative Proposals (Pew).

The Pew Center is located in Arlington, Virginia. Its measures and activities extend throughout the globe, especially because global warming is an issue affecting every nation. How can the world trust the Pew Center and BELC when the BELC companies are comprised of so many companies historically known to be huge polluters? This seems like a conflict of interest domestically. The United States hasn’t signed the Kyoto Protocol, and the Pew Center admits “The Kyoto Protocol is the first step in the international process” (Pew). When the President of the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Eileen Clauseen, was asked why the U.S., the largest producer of carbon dioxide, has not ratified the Kyoto Protocol, her response was, “…no, it has not ratified the Kyoto Protocol. President Bush has also made it clear that the U.S. will not ratify the Protocol…” Clauseen goes on to say that

Most countries were waiting for the outcome of the November meeting in The Hague before moving forward with ratification. They are now awaiting decisions that might be made in Bonn. But whether enough countries ratify it for it to enter into force is an open question. The EU has indicated that it will ratify, and other may as well. It will take 55 countries representing 55 percent of developed country emissions for the treaty to enter into force” (“Global”).

Clauseen has acknowledged that it will take a substantial effort to reduce the current carbon dioxide levels in the air. It’s a complicated and controversial issue. On one hand, you have developed countries reducing their emissions and finding energy alternatives. We even have the United States acknowledging the threat of global warming. However, a huge problem lies within developing countries. These countries, located in regions such as South American and Asia, will add to the carbon dioxide level as they economically improve and as the standard of living for its people increases (Balaam 463). But this increase comes at a cost. We may see a “second wave” of industrialization sweep the developing world and create more climate problems. Or, the industrialized nations must help developing countries economically expand without destroying the world. However, creating “green and clean” infrastructure in developing nations becomes a huge monetary issue.

The Pew Center on Global Climate Change and the BELC are engaged in a transnational controversy that extends all over the globe and includes extremely poor third world countries as well as very rich countries. They are ultimately trying to reduce and eliminate global warming. Global warming affects all nations, and all nations have contributed to the problem. Thus, the key question is whether or not you can trust the Pew Center, and especially the BELC, in finding a solution. There are many actors involved in this initiative. Because the United States only contains 4% of the world’s population yet emits 25% (“Global”), it’s a huge actor because this problem is of global proportions. The leaders of many top businesses are also key actors because their companies are partly responsible for the environmental problems we face. Herein lies a conflict of interest and an open door for criticism. Many of these top businesses are a part of the BELC. Most of these companies are huge polluters and are, according to the Pew Center and BELC, trying to cut down on their emissions and come up with new alternative energy sources. How sincere are these companies in actually addressing global warming? Are they willing to accept the financial losses associated with being ‘green’ and ‘clean’? Other actors include all the heads of nations, NGOs, environmental and green groups, and even every single individual who makes an effort to reduce pollution.

In examining the international political economy of the global environment, there are four aspects of environmental problems in general: “…the environment as a communal good, the increasingly global scope of environmental problems, the proliferation of actors involved in these issues, and the multidimensional makeup and linkage between the immediate causes and effects of environmental issues” (453). A very positive example was when Alcan joined BELC on October 18. “Alcan is a multinational, market-drive company and a global leader in aluminum and packaging…aerospace applications, bauxite mining and alumina processing” (Michaud). Alcan has had great success in reducing its greenhouse gases. It has proven that it’s possible to address global climate change while maintaining competitive excellence, growth, and profitability.

The reason Alcan is such a positive example is because

The principal vehicle for this effort is Alcan’s GHG emissions reduction program, TARGET, which was implemented in 2001 and is a key component of the Company’s Environment, Health and Safety (EHS FIRST) management system. In TARGET’s first four years, Alcan’s cumulative GHG reduction objective was set at 575,000 tonnes of CO2e. By the end of 2004, Alcan far surpassed this by recording a reduction of 2.9 million tones of CO2e (Michaud)

This one company, a member of BELC, set its own policy and reduced its emissions 2 million tones more than its original goal! It is definitely interesting to note that according to Anik Michaud, the Pew Charitable Trusts, one of the United States’ largest philanthropies, established the Pew Center. It has an influential voice in improving the environment and is dedicated to providing credible information and innovative solutions to address global climate change. Maybe the Pew Center is sincere in its efforts to help global warming, seeing how it was actually setup by a charity. It’s important to understand some of the IPE problems regarding global climate change before examining what the Pew Center has done about it.

The environment has been severely abused as a result of economic growth, industrialization, trade, and investment policies of the developed nations. As more international trade and investment occurs, more industrially manufactured products and services are produced that require vast amounts of energy resources (Balaam 460). Over the last hundred years, the countries that are now industrialized have become so at the cost of the environment. A key environmental problem is in regards to growth in developing nations and there effect on environmental problems. This is a key reason why the Bush administration hasn’t signed the Kyoto Protocol; the protocol doesn’t call for an equal proportion of emission reductions for industrialized and developing nations. However, developing nations counter and say that they would mean vast amounts of international aid in order to economically and industrially prosper and curb emissions at the same time. It is interesting to note “Many of the newly industrialized countries (NICs), such as China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Thailand, and India among other, have also been criticized for their failure to take the environment into account (Balaam 460).

Thus, one can see that the Pew Center must address the climate issue globally and that BELC is needed in order to actually accomplish the reduction of greenhouse gases. What the Pew Center has done is put together a group of many top companies that operate in many countries. Because the Pew Center’s goal is addressing global climate change, having all of these top companies pledging to do there part makes the Pew Center more credible and puts them at an advantage over other environmental groups because it has ties to these forty-one companies that represent over $2 trillion in market capitalization. As Alcan illustrated, these companies are actually doing their part in curbing emissions while still maintaining economic growth.

After extensive research, it’s fair to say there are no major critics of The Pew Center on Global Climate Change. As a matter of fact, a Pew Center quote was used to debunk a critic of global warming in a PBS article. A huge critic of global warming is Petr Chylek, Professor of Physics and Atmospheric Science at Dalhousie University in Halifx, Nova Scotia. He wrote “Scientists who want to attract attention to themselves, who want to attract great funding to themselves, have to (find a) way to scare the public…and this you can achieve only by making things bigger and more dangerous than they really are” (“Debating”). The PBS article used this quote from the Pew Center to debunk Professor Chylek

Addressing climate change is no simple task. To protect ourselves, our economy, and our land from the adverse effects of climate change, we must ultimately dramatically reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases…shifting away from a century’s legacy of unrestrained fossil fuel use and its associated emissions in pursuit of more efficient and renewable sources of energy. Such a transformation will require society to engage in a concerted effort, over the near and long-term, to seek out opportunities and design actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. (“Debating”)

Most outsiders and environmental groups see the Pew Center as a step in the right direction. They also view the BELC as a collection of companies who are trying to make a difference. There are always going to be environmentalists so out of touch with reality that they believe every single industry or machine that pollutes should be destroyed and that every single area that is not used by humans should be reforested and inhabited by animals. They don’t realize the economic catastrophe this would cause: Millions would lose jobs because the companies they work for would be closed because they release emissions, millions would starve. This isn’t worth cleaner air and more animals flocking about. Never mind losing jobs, because cars would be illegal, how would anybody get to work in the first place? The emphasis is clear. This is the extreme side of the spectrum. The other extreme side is polluting and profiting so much that eventually, the planet would become financial rich but uninhabitable. Thus, the Pew Center’s approach is correct. Addressing the issue while sustaining economic growth is complicated but has proven to be possible.

It seems that The Pew Center on Global Climate Change is a very reputable and positive organization that is using its resources to address global warming. The research has shown that different sources all agree that both global warming is a huge threat and that the Pew Center is positively addressing it. The Pew Center receives its funding from The Pew Charitable Trusts. The Trusts will invest $204 million in fiscal year 2006 to provide organizations and citizens with fact-based research and practical solutions for challenging issues (“Pew Charitable”).

A great deal of evidence shows that the BELC are actually making a difference and curbing their emissions. Some companies are even exceeding Kyoto goals. Because the BELC companies openly admit that enough is known about global warming to address it, they actively participate in emission curbing activities. For example, BELC member BP Amoco “plans to bring its own carbon emissions to 10 percent below its 1990 level by 2010, exceeding the Kyoto goal of roughly 5 percent for industrial countries. (“Social”). Dupont, another BELC member, has already cut its 1990 greenhouse gas emissions by 45 percent. They plan to reduce them by 65 percent by 2010. This also proves that meeting the Kyoto goal is not only possible, but also surpassing it is as well (“Social”). Other BELC companies, such as Toyota and Boeing are advancing company-wide programs for reducing carbon emission. Toyota was the first automaker to mass-produce a hybrid car, the Prius (“Social”). Some BELC companies are also looking for alternative energy sources. BP Amoco and Dutch Shell have been investing heavily in new sources of energy. “BP Amoco is now a leading manufacturer of solar cells. Shell, already a major player in both wind and solar cells, is also investing heavily in hydrogen and will likely open the world’s first chain of hydrogen stations in Iceland” (“Social”).

With the evidence presented, it’s quite evident that a coalition of top companies, contrary to what one might think, are actually addressing the global climate issue. The deeper political economic issues behind all of this include political pressure from companies (non-BELC) that lobby hard for lax industrial regulations, environmental groups that lobby the opposite, the need to address this issue with every single country in the world, the need to unite with every country to fight this battle, and lastly, addressing the climate issue while still growing economically. There are many actors involved from many different perspectives. From the industrial side, business leaders are trying to lobby for regulations that help them. From the environmental side, organizations like the Pew Center are main actors because they are independent, non-partisan, and in this case, encompass many top companies that have been proven to take measures into their own hands and address the global climate issue. There are other actors as well, such as researchers who are trying to find that next big energy alternative, and each individual, who is ultimately affected by decisions that are made by the upper levels, because environmental policy and economic issues go hand in hand. In answering cui bono, one must first realize that The Pew Center on Global Climate Change isn’t looking to make a profit; The Pew Charitable Trusts contains billions of dollars. The BELC represents over $2 trillion in market capitalization and 3 million workers, so profit isn’t a big deal to them. The environment benefits. The people who live on this planet benefit. When addressing Global Warming and than asking cui bono, the answer is “Everybody.”

There are many interesting things I discovered as I researched the Pew Center and BELC. At first, I thought that a center that is comprised of so many companies that have historically been polluters made me think that they are in this for some kind of profit or publicity. However, as I dove into the information, I began to discover some interesting things. The Pew Center is funded by The Pew Charitable Trusts, thus BELC companies don’t contribute at all to the Pew Center. The Pew Center and BELC have formed a mutually advantageous relationship not centered on money. My research has showed that both The Pew Center and BELC companies heavily address the climate issue. This issue is very controversial to begin with. Even though all scientists believe global warming is occurring, not all agree that it’s a big threat. Some believe there is no need to curb economic growth to address this issue. However, the Pew Center and BELC realize that the evidence shows there really is a threat. Globally, it’s a very complicated situation. Poor nations don’t have the means to help global warming, and this is why a system needs to be setup where the international community helps these poor nations economically advance without destroying the environment. Industrialized nations must unite together to use their resources to rescue the planet from the condition The Age of Oil put us in. At first look, when you see an organization partnered up with very big companies, you would believe that it is not a good thing for the environment. But if you look at all they have done over the years, you can clearly see the BELC companies regularly exceed Kyoto goals and that the Pew Center regularly pushes for greenhouse gas emissions and even gives proposals to the United States government that fights this issue.

Works Cited

Balaam, David N., and Michael Veseth. Introduction to International Political Economy.

BELC. 12 Dec. 2005. Pew Center. 13 Dec. 2005 “Debating ‘Global Warming’.” 22 Apr. 2005. PBS 13 Dec. 2005

Gelbspan, Ross. “Our denial is at Category 5.” USA Today 26 Sept. 2005.

Gelbspan, Ross. “Boiling Point.” Nation 8 Aug. 2005.

Center. 23 Dec. 2005

Goodell, Jeff. “WAS IT GLOBAL WARMING?” Rolling Stone Dec. 2005.

Michaud, Anik. “Alcan Joins [BELC] to address global climate change.” CNW Group. 18 Oct. 2005

Pew Center on Global Climate Change. 12 Dec. 2005. Pew Center. 13 Dec. 2005 The Pew Charitable Trusts. 12 Dec. 2005. Pew Center. 13 Dec. 2005

Social Funds. 26 July 2000. “Global Climate Coalition Cools Down.” 13 Dec. 2005